1G - 4G
1G: First generation wide area wireless (WWAN) communications systems (from the 1970s and 1980s) that are characterized as analog and designed for voice transfer. Examples include AMPS, TACS, and NMT. 1G technologies are circuit-switched and use FDMA to communicate.
2G: Second generation WWAN communications (introduced in the 1990s) that are digital and capable of providing voice, data, and other services. Examples include GSM, HSCSD, D-AMPS (TDMA/IS-136), and IS-95A & IS-95B.
3G: Third generation WWAN communications systems that are characterized by high-speed data rates (144 Kbps to 2+ Mbps) suitable for multimedia content. 3G technologies typically are packet-switched and use CDMA to communicate. Examples include GPRS, 1xRTT, EDGE, HDR, W-CDMA.
4G: Fourth generation WWAN communications
systems that are characterized by high-speed data rates at 20+ Mbps, suitable for
high-resolution movies and television. Initial deployments are anticipated in 2006-2010.
1x Evolution - Data and Voice. A 3G standard for
networks. Provides data rates up to 3+ Mbps (average 1
Mbps). Operates within 1.25 MHz of spectrum. Not
yet deployed: anticipated availability is 2004.
1x Radio Transmission Technology. A type of packet-switched 3G communications
that increases data transmission rates over existing CDMA IS-95A &
IS-95B networks. Provides 144 Kbps of data and
voice. Also known as cdma2000 Phase 1, IS-2000 Rel 0, 3G1XRTT, MC-1X, IMT-CDMA
specification for wired Token-Ring networks.
standard for wireless local area networks (WLANs) that covers
the wireless LAN media access control (MAC) and physical layer specification. 802.11b and
802.11a are extensions of this standard.
Standard that improves upon 802.11b with support for speeds up to 54 Mbps in the
less-crowded 5 GHz
band by using OFDM.
Many existing 802.11b vendors are expected to support 802.11a with products in North
America in 2002-2003.
An IEEE draft
specification for enhancing 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g WLANs. This
provides quality-of-service (QoS) bandwidth management and error correction for improved
handling of multimedia and RF interference.
standard for port-based network access control and Extensible
Authentication Protocol. Designed for wired Ethernet, but extensible to wireless LAN access points.
The protocol allows new keys to be generated
for each user and session.
As defined in the IEEE 802.11 standard,
any entity that has station functionality and that provides access to distribution
services via the wireless medium for associated stations. In terms of NetMotion
Mobility, access points may be thought of as providing wireless-to-wired network
bridging. This bridging occurs in layer 2 of the OSI model.
The response returned by a message recipient to confirm successful receipt of
information. Acknowledgments can be implemented at any level, including the physical level
(using voltage on one or more wires to coordinate transfer), the link level (to indicate
successful transmission across a single hardware link), or higher levels (for example, to
allow an application program at the final destination to respond to an application program
at the source). Often abbreviated as ACK.
A device that allows one system to connect to and work with another. The term is
commonly used to refer to a network interface card in a PC.
In networking, a numerical identifier for distinguishing one node from another.
A technique used to select bits from an Internet address for subnet addressing.
Conversion of an Internet address into a physical address. Depending on the underlying
network, address resolution may require broadcasting on a local network. See also ARP.
Advanced Encryption Standard. See also Rijndael.
In the client-server model, the part of the system that performs information
preparation and exchange on behalf of a client or server application.
American National Standards Institute. Organization founded in 1918 that coordinates
and facilitates the development of U.S. voluntary national standards for a variety of
industries, including telecommunications. For more information, see http://www.ansi.org/.
Application Program Interface. A set of calling conventions used when an application
talks to an underlying software layer. The Windows Sockets
interface is an API.
Advanced National Radio Data Service. Packet-switched non-IP terrestrial network in the
U.S. that operates in the 806-824 and 851-869 MHz bands (DataTAC) and
provides a data rate of up to 19.2 Kbps. ARDIS was the
first wireless data network in the U.S. (created by Motorola in the mid-1980s for IBM),
spun off as a commerical service, and acquired by American Mobile Satellite Corporation in
1998 (renamed Motient in 2000). Used by RIM Wireless Handheld (BlackBerry) devices.
Address Resolution Protocol. TCP/IP networks use 32-bit Internet addresses while
Ethernet networks use 48-bit Ethernet addresses: ARP translates an IP address to
an Ethernet address (or MAC address)
so that TCP/IP protocols can operate over an Ethernet network.
Application Service Provider.
A procedure for verifying the identity of a user, client, server, or application
Refers to the amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed period of time,
typically measured in bps.
It can be helpful to think of this as the size of a data "pipe."
Central radio transmitter/receiver in a communications system that acts as the hub for
communicating with mobile/wireless devices (usually within a cell site).
Refers to the amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed period of time,
typically measured in bps.
It can be helpful to think of this as the size of a data "pipe."
Central radio transmitter/receiver in a communications system that acts as the hub for
communicating with mobile/wireless devices (usually within a cell site).
NetMotion Mobility automatically switches to the fastest bandwidth network connection when multiple connections are active. This part of our InterNetwork Roaming technology is especially useful in public safety and field service markets where maintaining high-speed access to information while traveling between networks and coverage areas is important. Devices equipped with multiple wireless network cards automatically switch to the card that offers the highest bandwidth.
Best-bandwidth routing is available for all of NetMotion Mobility's supported client
operating systems except Windows CE/Pocket PC. It works on Windows 98 only with wireless
network cards that support interface-assisted roaming. (See Tech note 1491 for
details on supported cards.)
Bits per second. Measurement of transmission speed or bandwidth.
A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets between them.
When describing a network topology, a method of network communication in which all
nodes share the same communications channel (referred to as the communications bus).
Messages are transmitted to all nodes on the same bus at the same time. IEEE 802.3 networks are
Broadband Wireless Access.
Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone. Now known as ITU.
Code Division Multiple Access. Type of radio communications that accomodates multiple
signals in the same channel ("multiplexing"). Uses spread spectrum (DS/SS) technology
to vary the transmission frequency according to a defined code pattern. CDMA is used by a
number of 2G and 3G wireless
communications protocols including CDMA IS-95A (14.4 Kbps), CDMA IS-95B
(64 Kbps), PCS, 1xRTT, HDR, 1xEV-DO, and W-CDMA. CDMA
technologies are considered rivals to GSM and GPRS. For more
information, see http://www.cdg.org/.
Compare with FDMA,
Cellular Digital Packet Data. One type of wireless wide-area network (WWAN) service. CDPD
is a data transmission technology developed for use on cellular phone frequencies. CDPD
uses unused cellular channels (in the 800 to 900 MHz range) to
transmit data in packets at rates up to 19.2 Kbps.
Short for Microsoft Windows CE ("CE" stands for "consumer
electronics"). Operating system used in Handheld PCs, Pocket PCs, and embedded
devices (handheld scanners, office appliances, etc.).
A way of detecting transmission errors. The protocol software computes a checksum by
taking the sum of the integer values of part of the data in a packet and then appending
this sum to the packet when transmitting. Upon reception, the protocol software verifies
the contents of the packet by recomputing the checksum and comparing it to the value sent.
Compact Hyper Text Markup Language. A modified version of HTML used by I-Mode phones.
CIFS authentication protocol
A computer that is configured to request services on a network. Also, an application at
the "user" end of a connection.
A TCP/IP application that resides on the same physical machine as the NetMotion
Mobility Server. Any network application servers (such as FTP Citrix or web) may reside on
the same machine as the NetMotion server and still be accessible to NetMotion clients.
A transform of a data set, usually smaller than the original, that ensures the
integrity of the original data set. It is computationally difficult to apply the transform
without knowledge of the related cryptographic key or keys.
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection. Communications used in wired
Ethernet. When a device wants to transmit on the network, it checks to see if the network
is quiet. If it is not, it waits a random amount of time before retrying. If the network
is quiet and two devices transmit at exactly the same time, their signals collide. When
the collision is detected, they both back off and each wait a random amount of time before
retrying. Compare with wireless FDMA, TDMA, CDMA.
Digital-Advanced Mobile Phone Service. Digital version of AMPS also known as TDMA/IS-136.
Cellular phones transmit in the 824-849 MHz range and
receive in the 869-894 MHz range using 30 kHz channels (FDMA), and TDMA is used to
create time slots within each channel.
The basic unit of information passed across the Internet. In addition to data, it
contains source and destination addresses and a number of fields that define such things
as the length of the datagram, the header checksum, and flags to indicate whether the
datagram can be (or has been) fragmented.
A layer in the seven-layer OSI model. This
layer takes data from the physical layer and converts it into data that appears error-free
to the next layer up (the network layer). This layer detects transmission errors and
either corrects them or retransmits the data.
A type of packet-switched, narrowband network for wide-area communications, providing
data rates up to 19.2 Kbps.
Dynamic Channel Selection/Dynamic Channel Allocation.
Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications. Cordless phone standard used in Europe.
Uses 1.8 and 1.9 GHz
bands, and DCS/DCA
and TDMA for
frequency sharing. Provides data rates up to 522 Kbps (with 2 Mbps expected in
the future). Dual-mode phones can support both cordless DECT and cellular GSM. For more
information, see http://www.dectweb.com/dectforum/.
Data Encryption Standarda cipher developed by IBM for the U.S. government in the 1970s. DES uses a single 56-bit key to encode and decode data; the key is known only to the sender and receiver. But advances in technology are making DES weakerit's possible to break the encryption using the "brute force" of faster machines. Modern alternatives are triple-DES, Twofish, and AES.
Both DES and triple-DES are described in FIPS PUB 46-3 (NIST's Federal
Information Processing Standards Publication).
A program that provides an interface between the operating system and a hardware
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol that allows clients to obtain standard
network configuration information (such as a network address or subnet mask) from a
centralized server. This protocol is defined in RFC 2131. For more information, see http://www.dhcp.org/.
A key exchange used to generate symmetric keys for encrypting
data. The server sends the required encryption level, parameters, and a public key. The
client receives the parameters and sends its public key. Both sides then generate the
symmetric key and subsequent communication is encrypted. The private key is never
The meaning of this term depends on the context where it is used:
(1) Microsoft Networking. A collection of computers that share a common domain database and security policy. The domain controller is a Windows NT or Windows 2000 server computer that authenticates domain logons and maintains the security policy and master database for a domain.
(2) Wireless LANs. Some wireless hardware vendors use "domain" to refer to the SSID.
(3) Domain Name Service. In this context, "domain" can refer to a
top-level or subdomain (such as company.com or department.company.com).
A node that resolves Internet addresses for network hosts. When connecting to any network server, Domain Name Service (DNS) translates host names (such as www.company.com) into IP addresses (such as 192.168.22.5). DNS is designed to work as a distributed system of name servers. Each DNS name server has a database that contains information about a subset of local host names, and each DNS server can find information about other names through a process of referral and recursion. For security reasons, an enterprise DNS administrator may choose to keep certain intranet host names private. For example, the DNS server may be configured so that an internal accounting system host name cannot be resolved from the public Internet, but a public web server host name can be.
Another mechanism used to resolve Internet addresses is a Hosts file.
A security attack that tries to "downgrade" an encrypted connection in order
to discover passwords. When more than one security protocol or encryption type is
available, a downgrade attacker tries to force selection of the weakest one. For example,
if an attacker can force a 40-bit encryption key rather than a 128-bit one, cracking the
session is much easier.
A software module that can be used to control a network interface or an input/output
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum. A type of spread spectrum radio transmission that
spreads its signal over a wideband channel. This allows a range of frequencies to support
more transmissions. 802.11b
generally uses DS/SS. Compare to FH/SS.
Extensible Authentication Protocol. Defined by RFC 2284, EAP is an IETF standard
proposed by Cisco, Microsoft and other organizations to the IEEE 802.1x committee
that allows wireless hardware manufacturers and RADIUS server
vendors to develop interoperable security software. The 802.1x/EAP standard provides
scalable, centralized security management, authentication,
accounting, and dynamic key management (it
uses dynamic single-session, single-user encryption keys that are integrated with network
logon, which overcomes the deficiencies of WEP key management).
Enhanced Digital Access Communications System. Integrated voice and data private radio
system by Ericsson.
The technique used by layered protocols in which a layer adds header information to the
protocol data unit from the layer above. For example, a packet would contain a header from
the physical layer, followed by a header from the network layer (IP), followed by a header
from the transport layer (TCP), followed by the application protocol data.
A pair of related algorithms. Encryption obscures a data set, and decryption recovers
it. The process is computationally difficult without knowledge of the related
or keys. Examples are DES,
3DES, Twofish, and AES.
A communications method for LANs that uses a coaxial cable to connect different kinds
of computers. An Ethernet does not require switching logic or a central computer. The term
may be applied to both standard Ethernet and the 802.3 variation.
European Telecommunications Standards Institute.
Federal Communications Commission. US government agency (established 1934) that
regulates communications via radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable. For more
information, see http://www.fcc.gov/.
Frequency Division Multiple Access. Type of radio communications that assigns
connections to specific frequencies. This type of transmission has been used by early
analog mobile phones (AMPS, TACS) by dividing
the spectrum into 30 kHz channels.
Compare with TDMA,
Fixed End System. A third-party system running network applications, generally
considered to be a system that is not mobile-aware. An FES transparently uses the
NetMotion Mobility Server to communicate with the mobile devices running NetMotion client
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. A type of spread spectrum radio transmission where
the transmitter and receiver hop from one frequency to another to minimize interference. HomeRF and OpenAir use
FH/SS. The advantage of this over DS/SS is that it
needs only a narrow band for communication, whereas a DS/SS receiver has to listen over an
entire wideband channel. See also WBFH.
A network node that prevents traffic from one segment of a network from crossing over
into another. Firewalls are used to protect internal systems from unauthorized external
The process by which an IP datagram
is broken into smaller pieces to fit the requirements of a given physical network. The
reverse process is called reassembly.
A frame is what a packet is called
as it is transmitted across a serial line. The term derives from character-oriented
protocols that add special start-of-frame and end-of-frame characters when transmitting
Global Area Network. Uses satellites in geosynchronous orbit above Earth to provide
coverage. See also Inmarsat.
A node on a network that serves as a common access point for other nodes. The Internet
addresses for all nodes accessed through a particular gateway have the same network
portion but different node portions. For example, a node on Internet network 192.1.2 must
go through a gateway to communicate with a node on Internet network 192.3.4.
Gigahertz. One billion cycles per second (hertz).
Measurement of electromagnetic energy and transmission rates.
Global Positioning System. System for determining position on the Earth's surface by
comparing radio signals from several satellites. The GPS receiver samples data from up to
six satellites and uses the difference in reception times to determine its location.
Global System for Mobile Communications. GSM variations are used in Europe, Asia, and
North America. WWAN
protocol that operates in 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz bands with a
typical maximum data rate of 14.4 Kbps. Uses TDMA with 200 kHz channels
divided into eight time slots, with two slots (in different channels) used to send and
receive. GSM and GPRS
are considered rivals to CDMA technologies.
High Data Rate. A wide-area wireless technology by Qualcomm that provides a data rate
of up to 2.4 Mbps
in a 1.25 MHz-wide
channel. As an enhancement to existing CDMA networks, a
combination of TDMA
and CDMA is
used. HDR can also be used as a standalone 3G technology for 1xRTT.
Measurement of electromagnetic energy, equivalent to one "wave" or cycle per
second. Named after Heinrich Hertz, who identified electromagnetic waves in 1883. A kilohertz
(kHz) is 1,000 Hz.
Routing based on a hierarchical addressing scheme. Most Internet routing is based on a
two-level hierarchy in which an address is divided into a network portion and a node
portion. Gateways use only the network portion. Subnetting introduces additional levels of
High Performance Radio LAN Type 2. Next generation WLAN technology
designed to support 54 Mbps speeds in the
5 GHz band by
Similar to, but potentially incompatible with, the 802.11a
standard. Developed by European Telecommunications Standardisation Institute (ETSI).
HiperLAN2 products are expected in 2002-2003.
Public area where wireless
LAN Internet access is likely to be used (for high-speed access to e-mail, web sites,
etc.). Users of these areas are traditionally unproductive while waiting. Examples are
convention centers, hotels, airports, train stations, bus stations, restaurants, and
Handheld PC. Mobile device powered by Microsoft Windows CE.
Inter-Access Point Protocol. This specification defines how access points from
different vendors communicate with each other to support mobile stations that roam across
cells. The IEEE 802.11 standard addresses the physical and MAC (media access control)
layers of the OSI
model, while the IAPP specification is at the data link layer.
Internet Control Message Protocol. A protocol used by the Internet Protocol to report
errors, give limited routing advice, and provide simple low-level services over TCP/IP
networks. ICMP checks and generates messages on the status of devices on the network, and
can be used to inform other devices of a failure in a particular machine. The Ping utility
generates ICMP packets.
Integrated Digital Enhanced Network. Wireless communications technology developed by
Motorola. Operating in the 800 MHz and 1.5 GHz bands and based
on TDMA, iDEN
can deliver 64 Kbps
over a 25 kHz
channel. Each channel can be divided to transmit a mix of voice, data, dispatch (two-way
radio), or text message (SMS).
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. For more information, see http://www.ieee.org/.
Internet Engineering Task Force. For more information, see http://www.ietf.org/.
Digital packet-based information service, developed by NTT DoCoMo for use on mobile
phones. Widely adopted in Japan after its introduction in 1999. The transfer rate is 9600 bps, but is expected
to increase to 384 Kbps
Text is formatted using cHTML (not WML).
Internet Mobility Protocol, used for communication bewteen the NetMotion Mobility
client and server. Used as transport for RPC, session
management for InterNetwork
Roaming, data encryption,
etc. By default IMP uses UDP and port 5008.
International Maritime Satellite. Organization founded in 1979. Provides global
satellite communications service to ships, planes, trains, offshore rigs, and mobile
phones up to 64 Kbps.
(Lowercase "i") A collection of packet switching networks connected by
gateways, along with the protocols that allow them to function logically as a single
(Uppercase "I") A collection of networks and gateways (including the ARPANET
and NSFnet) using the TCP/IP protocol suite and functioning as a single cooperative
virtual network. The Internet reaches many commercial institutions, universities, and
government research labs.
InterNetwork Roaming technology provides continuous and secure connections between
wired and wireless data networks, regardless of the network type, enabling application
persistence no matter where a user roams. InterNetwork Roaming technology is unique to
NetMotion Mobility and is a trademark of NetMotion Wireless, Inc.
Internet Protocol. The Internet Protocol sends data packets, called datagrams,
across multiple networks, but does not ensure that they arrive at their destination
ensures reliable delivery). Each IP datagram has a header containing source and
destination information, allowing each datagram to travel independently to its destination
directly or through gateways, with each datagram perhaps traveling a different route to
reach its destination.
(Also called "Internet address.") The 32-bit address assigned to hosts using
TCP/IP. Most Internet addresses consist of a network portion and a node portion. The
address for each device must be unique on the network.
The fundamental unit of information passed across the Internet. Contains source and
destination addresses along with data and a number of fields which define such things as
the length of the datagram, the header checksum, and flags to say whether the datagram can
be (or has been) fragmented.
IPsec (or IPSec)
Internet Protocol Security. A developing framework of standards, developed by IETF, for security at the IP layer. Provides options for sender authentication (Authentication Header, or AH), or authentication plus encryption (Encapsulating Security Payload, or ESP). Uses Diffie-Hellman for session keys and DES for encryption. IPsec is expected to be useful for implementing VPNs.
Internet Protocol version 6 (or IP "next generation") is the next version of IP (it is in review
by the IETF
standards committees). It has better security and increases Internet addresses from four
to 16 bytes, to accomodate the rapid growth of the Internet. It will also let users keep
the same IP address even when they physically connect to different places on the Internet.
Native protocol for Novell NetWare file/print services.
Infrared. Line-of-sight wireless communications medium used by television remote
controls, laptops, PDAs, and other devices. Operates in the spectrum from mid-microwave to
below visible light.
International Organization for Standardization. ISO was founded in 1946 and consists of
standard organizations from more than 75 countries. U.S. member body is ANSI. For more
information, see http://www.iso.ch/.
International Telecommunications Union. This is a standards body formerly known as CCITT.
Kilo (thousand) bits per second. Measurement of transmission speed or bandwidth.
Kerberos is a network authentication protocol for client/server applications which uses
strong cryptography. Kerberos protects against password sniffing and password attacks
which can lead to an attacker masquerading as a valid user. It involves communication
between a Kerberos client, Kerberos server, and Kerberized application service. This
technology was developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and is defined by RFC 1510. Its name
originates from the three-headed dog in Greek mythology that guarded the entrance to
A value used by cryptography algorithms to encrypt or decrypt a message. Some
encryption schemes use the same secret key to encrypt and decrypt a message, but public
key encryption uses a "private" (secret) key and a "public" key (known
by all parties).
Layer 2 Transport Protocol. An extension of PPTP.
Greek character used to represent wavelength. Wavelength is the inverse of the
frequency (measured in Hz).
Local Area Network. Any physical network that operates at high speed (usually tens of
megabits per second through several gigabits per second) over short distances (up to a few
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol. Software protocol for locating resources on a
network (organizations, people, files, devices). Directory entries are organized in a
hierarchical tree structure. Microsoft has implemented LDAP as part of Active Directory.
Mobile Commerce. Business transactions conducted with online mobile devices.
Media Access Control address. Unique 6-byte number burned into many types of network
adapters (Ethernet, Token Ring, 802.11, etc.).
Often refered to as "hardware address" or "physical address". Before
data is sent to a particular IP address,
its MAC address must be determined (see ARP).
Mega (million) bits per second. Measurement of transmission speed or bandwidth.
Code name for Pocket PC 2002 operating system, successor to Microsoft Windows CE 3.0 for
Pocket PC. Provides Windows XP look-and-feel and improved wireless support.
Mobile End Station. Sometimes used to refer to the NetMotion Mobility Client.
Megahertz. One million cycles per second (hertz).
Measurement of electromagnetic energy and transmission speed (such as a CPU's internal
Low-power wireless technology that operates in a "microcellular" topology.
Each cell area covered by a radio transceiver
is smaller than traditional cellular telephone service. Examples are PHS, PACS, and Ricochet.
(1) Mobility Management Server. Sometimes used to refer to the NetMotion Mobility Server.
(2) Multimedia Messaging Services. Considered a successor to SMS in Europe.
Mobile IP (RFC 2002) is a set of
standards developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that gives
mobile nodes access to IP network resources. It enables devices to move from one point of
network attachment to another without having to change IP addresses. NetMotion uses a
different approach to handle the same addressing issues that Mobile IP does. For more
detail, see NetMotion and
A type of packet-switched, non-IP, narrowband network in North America and Europe that
operates at 8 Kbps
in the 900 MHz
band. Originally deployed in Sweden in 1986 by Ericsson and Swedish Telecom and later
deployed in the US and UK by RAM Mobile Data (acquired in 1998 by BellSouth, now a unit of
Cingular Wireless). Used by some models of RIM Wireless Handheld (BlackBerry) devices.
Mobile Telephone Switching Office. The central computer that connects a wireless phone
call or Internet request to the public telephone network. The MTSO monitors calls and
handles handoffs between coverage cells.
A computer connected to more than one physical data link. For example, a machine with a
network card interface and a serial interface is a multi-homed host. The data links may or
may not be attached to the same network.
Neighborhood Area Network, sometimes known as "Nanny Network".
Interconnection of LANs
in a community, often referring to Internet-connected WLAN APs to
create public access hotspots. An
example of this is the Seattle
Wireless Network. Same as MAN.
Network Address Translation. NAT converts between different IP addresses
on different networks. Systems on a private network may share a single proxy IP address
on the Internet. For more information, see RFC 3022.
NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface. An enhanced version of the NetBIOS protocol used by
network operating systems such as LAN Manager, LAN Server, Windows for Workgroups, Windows
95, and Windows NT.
Network Driver Interface Specification. The description of how network protocol modules
interoperate in a Microsoft Windows operating system.
Network Basic Input Output System. A common interface specification for PC local area
networks. Application programs use NetBIOS for client/server or peer-to-peer
communications. One common example is Microsoft Networking (Client for Microsoft Networks)
file and print services.
The NetMotion designation for a mobile node in a distributed network. The NetMotion
Mobility Client is typically running on a laptop, pen-based computer, or data-collection
device that connects to the network from many different physical locations, and may go out
of range or suspend operation during use.
The NetMotion designation for a fixed node in a distributed network that manages
connections between NetMotion clients and other fixed nodes on the network. The server
software is hosted by a Windows NT server.
Network Interface Card. Refers to your networking hardware adapter (wired Ethernet,
wireless LAN, etc.).
NetMotion Mobility Server.
Nordic Mobile Telephone. An analog cellular phone system deployed in more than 40
countries in Europe. NMT was the first analog cellular phone system (launched in the
Scandinavian countries in 1979) and uses 450 or 900 MHz.
In a cryptographic protocol, a nonce is a number that is used once and then discarded.
The one-time use ensures that an attacker cannot inject messages from a previous exchange
and appear to be a legitimate user (also see replay attack).
NTLM challenge/response protocol
The CIFS (Common Internet File System) authentication
protocol (also known as the NTLM challenge/response protocol) is used to validate the user
without transmission of clear text passwords. The client sends the user name and domain
information, and the server challenges the client with an 8-byte nonce. The client
then uses the challenge, password, and other information to generate a 24-byte response.
The connection is disallowed if this response does not match the value calculated by the
server. If the values match, the user is successfully authenticated.
Original Equipment Manufacturer. A type of business partner.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Used by 802.11a, 802.11g and HiperLAN2. A
high-speed signal is split into a number of low-speed signals transmitted in parallel,
thus more efficiently using bandwidth but decreasing wireless range from an access point.
Wireless LAN networking standard used by Proxim. OpenAir devices use FHSS RF in the 2.4 GHz frequency band
at a data rate of 1.6 Mbps. This is
similar to, but not compatible with, the 802.11/Wi-Fi standard.
Open Systems Interconnection model. The standard seven-layer reference model developed by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) that describes how messages are transmitted between any two points in a telecommunications network. The OSI layers are:
A communication begins at the application layer when, for example, a user runs an
application and sends a request. The request is passed from layer to layer until it
reaches the physical layer, where the actual transmission of bits takes place. On the
receiving end the communication passes through the same layers, from physical through
The unit of data transmitted on a network. A packet contains information that enables
computers on a network to determine whether to receive it, in addition to the data being
Personal Access Communications System. PACS operates in a microcellular
topology. It is an ANSI
standard and operates within the PCS band. Wireless
PACS modem speeds reportedly support data speeds of up to 57.6 Kbps or more.
Personal Communication Services. Wireless services that emerged after the U.S.
government auctioned commercial licenses in 1994 and 1995. This radio spectrum in the 1.8
to 2 GHz
range uses CDMA
to provide digital cellular telecommunications services (voice, messaging, etc.).
Personal Digital Assistant. Handheld device that usually includes calendar, phone book,
calculator, notepad, and telephone or networking communications.
(2) Primary Domain Controller. Microsoft Windows NT service that manages security for
its local domain
with a database of usernames, passwords, and permissions.
Personal Handyphone System. PHS was launched in Japan in 1995 and is now used in Asia,
South America, and elsewhere. Microcellular technology operating in the 1880 to 1930 MHz band. Supports
voice and data with service available at 32, 64, or 128 Kbps. Uses DCA and TDMA.
Personal Information Manager. Software that lets you organize names, addresses,
telephone numbers, appointments, and random notes. PIM functionality is usually provided
Packet Internet Groper. A type of network test to determine if a particular system is
responding. A Ping utility generates requests and waits for a responses to determine if a
system is reachable or "alive." Standard Ping uses ICMP packets.
Public Key Infrastructure. Systems that allow the use of digital certificates (public keys) for
distributed security (authentication
PKI includes certificate authorities and directory services. Examples of technologies that
can use PKI: SSL (HTTPS) web encryption, software file digital signatures, IPsec, and e-mail.
The address the NetMotion Mobility Server uses to communicate with a NetMotion client.
The POP address changes as the mobile device moves from one location to another on the
network. The POP address is similar to a Mobile IP
Plain Old Telephone Service. Traditional no-frills circuit-switched wired dial-up
analog telephone service.
In TCP/IP and UDP networks, a port is the endpoint to a logical connection. It is used
to identify an application process (the source and destination specified in TCP segments
or UDP packets). The port number identifies its type; port 80, for example, is used for
Point-to-Point Protocol. Used over dial-up telephone lines, direct serial connections,
ISDN, and other wireless and wired mediums. PPP provides password authentication security
and can encapsulate IP,
IPX, and other
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol. PPTP is a version of PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)
that was developed by the PPTP Forum (Microsoft Corporation, U.S. Robotics, and a number
of remote access vendors). The packets of data formatted for one network protocol (like
TCP/IP) are encapsulated in packets that are used by another protocol. Because the packets
are secure, PPTP is used to create Virtual Private Networks
(VPNs), where messages are transmitted securely using the public Internet as an
The mechanism whereby one system "fronts" for another system when responding
to protocol requests. Security applications in firewalls use proxy services to screen the
secured network from users on the Internet. The NetMotion Mobility Server acts as a
network-level proxy for each mobile device running the NetMotion Mobility Client software,
maintaining the state of the device and its sessions with host network applications on
Fixed End Systems (FES). When a mobile device becomes unreachable, shuts down, or changes
its point of presence, the NetMotion server maintains the connection to the FES host by
acknowledging receipt of data and queuing requests.
Public Switched Telephone Network. The worldwide, circuit-switched voice telephone
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Services. A client-server security authentication protocol described in RFC 2138. Provides centralized authentication, authorization, and accounting. NetMotion Mobility supports RADIUS authentication as of version 4.0:
Regional Area Network.
Remote Access Service. Windows NT service that supports PPP dial-in.
A physical device that passes signals from one transmission medium to another without
A security attack where a valid data transmission is repeated and retransmitted, often
in an attempt to circumvent an authentication protocol (the authentication messages from a
valid client are copied and then resent as part of the attacker's authentication). Also
WWAN service provided by Metricom during 1995-2001. Ricochet 1 provided 28.8 Kbps service; Ricochet 2 provided 128 Kbps service. Laptops and handhelds used Ricochet modems to communicate over frequency-hopping channels in the 902-928 MHz band. Within a 10- to 20-square mile cell, approximately 100 microcell radio transceivers (attached to public utility poles) would use the 2.3 GHz (WCS) and 2.4 GHz bands to communicate with a wired access point connected to the Internet.
Metricom was founded in 1985, conducted years of research and development, had its
first public offering in 1992, started Ricochet service operations in 1995, obtained $600M
in financing in 1999, grew to 500+ employees, and reached annual revenues of $18.5M in
1999. Despite expanding coverage to 15 U.S. metropolitan areas (primarily airports,
hotels, and business districts), the service obtained only 51,000 subscribers which could
not sustain its costly expansion, or compete with emerging WLAN technology and
services. Metricom filed for bankruptcy protection and ceased operations in summer 2001.
Rijndael (pronounced "Rine-doll") is the official Advanced Encryption
Standard (AES). It was developed by Belgian researchers Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen,
selected by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2000, and
approved as a U.S. government standard (FIPS 197) in December 2001. AES is much
stronger than the Data Encryption Standard (DES), and offers an
excellent trade-off of strength and performance.
Movement of a mobile device from one network location to another. This may be between
two microcells on the same subnet or between access points on different IP subnets.
Remote Procedure Call. A mechanism described in RFC 1057 for allowing a process on a local
system to initiate and control a process on a remote system. Typically the local system is
not aware that the procedure call is executed on a remote system.
A program or device offered by a network server.
A mobile device running an instance of a network application on a Fixed End System
(FES) or application server. A mobile device with NetMotion client software and an active
connection to the NetMotion Mobility Server can run multiple application sessions
Systems/Solution Integrator. A type of business partner.
Subscriber Identity Module. A "smart card" used with GSM phones/devices.
The SIM card contains mobile service profile information (including the mobile telephone
number). The SIM card must be inserted in the device in order for it to operate, and is
interchangable between devices.
Session Initiation Protocol. Draft IETF protocol for
setting up telephony and multimedia sessions.
Short Messaging Service. Text messaging used by alphanumeric two-way pagers.
Simple Network Management Protocol.
Wireless Service Set Identifier. Network security name or ID used by wireless LAN
hardware. The wireless devices must be configured for the same identifier in order to
communicate. May also be referred to as "Network Name" or "Domain" by
some wireless LAN hardware vendors.
A way of dividing an Internet network into a number of subnetworks. To create a subnet, some of the bits in the node portion of the Internet address are used to designate the subnetwork. From outside a subnetted network, the subnetworks do not exista subnetted network appears to be a single network. From within a subnetted network, the network consists of several smaller networks that can only communicate with each other through gateways.
The purpose of subnetting is to take a large address space (such as that found in a
class A or class B network) and to divide it into several smaller address spaces, making
them better suited to the physical network medium and easier to manage.
A network environment in which a single physical network supports two or more logical
networks. Supernetting allows a network to accommodate additional IP addresses without
reconfiguring existing devices.
Total Access Communications System. Modified version of AMPS used primarily
in the U.K., Japan, and China.
Codename for Microsoft Windows CE .NET.
Devices running Talisker are becoming available during 2002. The codename reportedly
originates from a type of single-malt Scotch whiskey distilled on Scotland's Isle of Skye.
Transmission Control Protocol. TCP ensures that datagrams arrive at their destination
process without error, without loss or duplication, and in sequence. User programs such as
Telnet and FTP pass their data to TCP, which encapsulates the data and passes it to IP. IP, in turn,
packages the data into datagrams. The datagrams are sent to their destination, where the
receiving TCP checks the data for errors, acknowledges the receipt of error-free data, and
reassembles the packets. Data that arrives with errors is not acknowledged and is
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Specifically denotes the combination
of TCP and IP; more generally, it refers to the Internet Protocol Suite, which includes
TCP and IP as well as several other protocols
Transport Driver Interface. As defined by the Microsoft Windows networking
architecture, provides a transport-independent programmatic interface for network
Time Division Multiple Access. Type of radio communications that accomodates multiple
signals in the same channel ("multiplexing"). The signal is broken into pieces
of defined length and transmitted at specific intervals. TDMA Interim Standard 136
(TDMA/IS-136) is also known as D-AMPS. TDMA is
also used in other communications such as GSM, GPRS, EDGE, iDEN, and PDC. Compare with CDMA, FDMA.
A standard protocol, used in conjunction with TCP/IP, that allows a computer to act as
a terminal on a network. Telnet uses TCP to deliver its data. Telnet is part of the
Internet Protocol Suite.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. An emerging IEEE standard that
is being embraced by WECA
as a successor to WEP.
The implementation results in each packet being encrypted
with a different key.
Because the encryption still uses RC4, TKIP is expected to be supported by 802.11b vendors
through firmware updates available after mid-2002.
Device designed to both transmit and receive signals.
A combination of public and/or private networks with varying, or unknown, levels of
Prior to the adoption of a new standard (AES), the (U.S.)
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has recommended use of triple-DES.
Free public domain encryption algorithm that was developed by Counterpane Systems and
has been well-studied by cryptographers. Performance testing has shown this option offers
an excellent trade-off for encryption strength and processing performance. It was one of
the finalists for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in 2000. Compare with Rijndael.
User Datagram Protocol. A transport layer in TCP/IP networks. UDP is a low-overhead
protocol that uses IP to deliver its packets.
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access.
Ultra Wideband. Signals characterized as fast and short pulses outside of the
traditional radio spectrum. UWB technology can accomodate higher bandwidth with
low-powered devices. It is the subject of continuing research and development, and
scrutiny by the FCC.
Value-Added Reseller. A type of business partner.
Very high frequency range of the radio spectrum. This band extends from 30 to 300 MHz.
address assigned to a mobile device running NetMotion Mobility Client software and
connecting to a fixed end system (FES). This address
is similar to a home address as defined by the Mobile IP
Virtual Local Area Network. A VLAN divides a local area network using software rather
than by reconfiguring hardware. Though a VLAN might be physically located on a different
segment of a LAN, it behaves as if it were connected to the same wire.
Voice over IP.
Virtual Private Network. A VPN connects network components and resources through a secure protocol tunnel so that devices actually residing on separate networks appear to share a common, private backbone. The tunnel traverses a wireless or other public network in a manner that provides security services formerly available only in private networks. Before a tunnel is established cryptographic methods are used to establish the identities of the tunnel participants.
NetMotion can encrypt information traversing the tunnel for the duration of the VPN
Wide area network. A network that extends over a relatively large geographical area. A
WAN is connected through public networks (for example, the telephone system) or privates
ones (for example, leased lines or satellites). The largest WAN is currently the Internet.
Wireless Application Protocol. WAP is a protocol designed to transmit data over
low-bandwidth wireless networks to devices such as mobile telephones, pagers, and PDAs.
There are two key components: a WAP gateway and a "micro-browser." The gateway
connects the mobile device to the Internet, and the micro-browser uses an XML document format
called wireless mark-up language (WML) to display pages.
Wideband Frequency Hopping. Modification of FH/SS (approved by FCC in 2000) that
allows wider (5 MHz)
hopping channels, thus increasing throughput to 10 Mbps. Expected to
be adopted by HomeRF
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access. Type of 3G radio
communications capable of providing a data rate of 2 Mbps over GSM systems by using
Implementations are occurring during 2001-2002 in Japan, Europe, and North America. See
Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance which promotes Wi-Fi products.
Wired Equivalent Privacy. Optional security mechanism defined within the 802.11 standard. It is designed to make the link integrity of the wireless medium equal to that of a cable. If implemented, it provides two optional levels of security: authentication and privacy.
WEP applies this security at the MAC (Media Access) level of the network. The core
algorithm used by WEP is RC4, a stream cipher from RSA Data Security. For additional
analysis on WEP, see also the NetMotion
Security white paper and Using NetMotion
Mobility with WEP.
Codename for Microsoft Windows XP, the successor to Windows 2000.
Windows Internet Name Service. A name resolution service that resolves Windows NT
networking computer names to IP addresses in a routed environment. A WINS server handles
name registrations, queries, and releases. Also known as NetBIOS Name
Windows Sockets API.
A standard networking API for Microsoft Windows operating systems, described in the
Microsoft SDK. The Windows Sockets interface can be implemented as a DLL file and is
typically used on TCP/IP networks.
Wireless Internet Service Provider Roaming initiative by WECA.
Wireless local area network. A WLAN uses radio frequency (RF) to transmit and
receive data (as opposed to using a wireline network). A WLAN can either stand alone or be
an extension to a LAN. WLANs generally provide higher bandwidth capabilities than WWANs. Examples of
WLAN technologies are IEEE 802.11b, OpenAir, HomeRF, and HiperLAN2.
Wireless Local Loop. Interconnection of non-mobile wired networks using wireless
technology. WLL can provide cost-effective telecommunications service between towns in
developing countries or short-distance BWA between
buildings in an urban area. Examples are LMDS, MMDS, and UNII.
Wireless Markup Language. Programming language used in the WAP protocol. (This
is analogous to how HTML is used with HTTP.)
Company of origin for NetMotion Wireless, Inc. WRQ was established in 1981 and is a global leader in
enterprise integration and connectivity software solutions.
Wireless wide area network. A WWAN uses various devicestelephone lines, satellite
dishes, and radio wavesto service an area broader than that which can be covered by
a WLAN, although
typically with lower bandwidth.
Examples of WWAN technologies are CDPD, ARDIS, and GPRS. WWAN
technologies are often categorized into "generations" 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G.
The X.25 protocol suite allows systems on different networks to communicate through a
public data network. X.25 was adopted as a standard by CCITT, later ITU, and approved by
ISO. X.25 defines
the physical, data link, and network layers in the OSI model.
Extensible Markup Language.
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