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All About GPS
GPS Signals in Detail

Carriers

The GPS satellites transmit signals on two carrier frequencies. The L1 carrier is 1575.42 MHz and carries both the status message and a pseudo-random code for timing.

The L2 carrier is 1227.60 MHz and is used for the more precise military pseudo-random code.

Pseudo-Random Codes

There are two types of pseudo-random code (see tutorial for explanation of pseudo random codes in general). The first pseudo-random code is called the C/A (Coarse Acquisition) code. It modulates the L1 carrier. It repeats every 1023 bits and modulates at a 1MHz rate. Each satellite has a unique pseudo-random code. The C/A code is the basis for civilian GPS use.

The second pseudo-random code is called the P (Precise) code. It repeats on a seven day cycle and modulates both the L1 and L2 carriers at a 10MHz rate. This code is intended for military users and can be encrypted. When it's encrypted it's called "Y" code. Since P code is more complicated than C/A it's more difficult for receivers to acquire. That's why many military receivers start by acquiring the C/A code first and then move on to P code.

Navigation Message

There is a low frequency signal added to the L1 codes that gives information about the satellite's orbits, their clock corrections and other system status.

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